Hybrid Systems
Tradable Renewables

The White Paper on Renewable Energy (2003) has set a target of 10 000GWh of energy to be produced from renewable energy sources (mainly from biomass, wind, solar and small-scale hydro) by 2013.

Following Cabinet approval of the White Paper, the DoE proceeded with the development of its renewable energy strategy. The implementation plan of the various technologies was identified in a macroeconomic study undertaken in 2003.

The White Paper's target of 10 000GWh renewable energy contribution to final energy consumption by 2013 was confirmed to be economically viable with subsidies and carbon financing. Achieving the target will:

Add about 1.667MW new renewable energy capacity, with a net impact on GDP as high as R1.071-billion a year;
Create additional government revenue of R299-million;
Stimulate additional income that will flow to low-income households by as much as R128-million, creating just over 20 000 new jobs; and
Contribute to water savings of 16.5-million kilolitres, which translates into a R26.6-million saving.

Renewable energy sources, other than biomass (the energy from plants and plant-derived materials), have not yet been exploited optimally in South Africa. The DoE has strengthened international relationships in this area via partnerships established during the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in 2002.

Such partnerships will overcome market barriers and promote widespread use of sustainable energy solutions. These include the Global Village Energy Partnership and the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership.

The 2003 study also highlighted the technologies to be implemented first, based on the level of commercialisation of the technology and natural resource availability.

These technologies include:
.Sugar-cane bagasse (the fibre that comes from crushing the sugar cane) for cogeneration;
.Landfill gas extraction;
.Mini-hydroelectric schemes;
.Commercial and domestic solar water heaters;

These technologies are to be deployed in the first phase of the target period, from 2005 to 2007. The Department has introduced nominal, once-off capital subsidies to assist project developers in implementing economically sound projects that are readily financed by financial institutions.

The vision of the Department of Energy (DoE) is to make adequate and affordable energy available to developing communities through a mix of providing alternative energy resources at a reasonable cost. The aim is to satisfy the basic needs of the developing sector and at the same time promote the effective utilisation of South Africa's vast alternative energy sources.
monitoring & evaluation

To monitor progress towards the White Paper's target of producing 10 000GWh of energy from renewable energy sources by 2013, a Monitoring and Evaluation project has been set up.

Every year the DoE collects data on renewable energy contributions from relevant stakeholders to assess or evaluate progress towards this goal.

The target can be achieved mainly from production of renewable energy by grid, off-grid (a source of energy not connected to a grid) and bio-fuel facilities. This renewable energy will be used for power generation to the grid and for water heating purposes.

The DoE has the sole mandate to promote the use of renewable energy, initiate projects to advance the use of renewable energy and annually monitor the precise quantity of energy produced from renewable energy.

In 2004, 70GWh were produced from various sources of renewable energy, and monitoring for renewable energy produced for 2005 is under way.

To put the 10 000GWh 2013 target into perspective, this would be equivalent to electrifying approximately two million households having an annual electricity consumption of 5 000 kWh. Put another way, the 10 000 GWh target is equivalent to about 5 percent of the present electricity generation in South Africa. This is equivalent to replacing two (2 x 660MW) units of Eskom's combined coal-fired power stations.

energy sources
Petroleum: fuel price, focus areas, domestic influences...
Natural Gas: Governance, International agreements, developments...
Electricity: Independent power producers, supply industry, free basic electricity...
Coal: Reserves, production, carbon sequestration...
Renewable & Alternative Fuels: Includes hydropower, solar, wind, biomass...
Nuclear: Non-proliferation, safety, technolgy, IYNC, WiNSA...
acts & legislations
Policies and Legislation: Acts, policies, regulations, legislations...
programmes & projects
national electricity plan...
installation of 1 million solar water heaters by
processes, systems and structures...
DNA: Kyoto Protocol, CDM...